Official nameFederal Republic of Germany
Name in local languageBundesrepublik Deutschland (de)
SubcontinentEuropean Union
Population (ranking: 17e)83,129,285 inhabitants (2021)
Population growth-0.01 % / year
Area357,386 km²
Density232.60 inhabitants / km²
GDP (ranking: 4e)3,846.414 billions $USD (2020)
GDP/capita (ranking)46,208 $USD (2020)
GDP growth-4.60 % / year (2020)
Life expectancy (ranking)81.00 years (2020)
Birth rate9.30 ‰ (2020)
Fertility rate1.53 children / woman (2020)
Death rate (ranking)11.80 ‰ (2020)
Infant mortality rate (ranking)3.00 ‰ (2019)
Literacy rate100.00 % (2021)
Official languagesGerman
CurrencyEuro (€ EUR)
HDI (ranking: 9e)0.947 / 1 (2019)
EPI (ranking)78.37 (2018)
GovernmentFederal constitutional parliamentary republic
Head of StatePresident Frank-Walter Steinmeier ; Chancellor Olaf Scholz
National Day3 October (Reunification of 1990)
Tourists (ranking)38,881,000 people (2018)
Germany – small
The population is rising thanks to massive immigration

Germany is a federal state of Central Europe, bordered by the North Sea, Denmark and the Baltic Sea to the north, Poland and the Czechia to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and by the France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west. It occupies a strategic central position in the heart of Europe and the European Union. It is organized in “Länder”, or Federated States, numbering 16.
Europe’s leading industrial powerhouse, and one of the largest in the world, Germany is a major exporting country. It has leading companies in many fields, including automotive and machine tools.

Berlin, Allemagne
Berlin, Germany. Photo: Wikipedia
Suisse saxonne, Allemagne
Saxon Switzerland, Germany. Photo: Andreas Steinhoff, Wikipedia
See all related maps or articles
Urban areas (2018)
Urban areasPopulation
Rhine-Ruhr10,642,890 inhabitants
Berlin4,469,439 inhabitants
Frankfurt3,794,360 inhabitants
Hamburg3,173,871 inhabitants
Stuttgart2,996,440 inhabitants
Munich2,879,107 inhabitants
Mannheim1,400,533 inhabitants
Nuremberg1,340,886 inhabitants
Leipzig-Halle1,178,658 inhabitants
Hanover1,157,624 inhabitants
Dresden1,143,197 inhabitants
Karlsruhe1,033,550 inhabitants
Bremen976,819 inhabitants
Bielefeld926,761 inhabitants
Chemnitz-Zwickau883,743 inhabitants
Saarbrücken763,815 inhabitants
Augsburg661,540 inhabitants
Freiburg im Breisgau658,419 inhabitants
Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle)650,960 inhabitants
Brunswick588,778 inhabitants
Munster538,508 inhabitants
Kiel503,610 inhabitants
Kassel481,172 inhabitants
Heidelberg427,514 inhabitants
Ulm396,948 inhabitants
See all urban areas
Administrative divisions
States (Länder)PopulationArea
Baden-Württemberg11,103,043 inhabitants35,751 km²
Bavaria13,140,183 inhabitants70,550 km²
Berlin3,664,088 inhabitants892 km²
Brandenburg2,531,071 inhabitants29,654 km²
Bremen680,130 inhabitants419 km²
Hamburg1,852,478 inhabitants755 km²
Hesse6,293,154 inhabitants21,115 km²
Lower Saxony8,003,421 inhabitants47,615 km²
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern1,610,774 inhabitants23,214 km²
North Rhine-Westphalia17,925,570 inhabitants34,110 km²
Rhineland-Palatinate4,098,391 inhabitants19,854 km²
Sarrland983,991 inhabitants2,569 km²
Saxony4,056,941 inhabitants18,420 km²
Saxony-Anhalt2,180,684 inhabitants20,452 km²
Schleswig-Holstein2,910,875 inhabitants15,802 km²
Thuringia2,120,237 inhabitants16,202 km²
See all administrative divisions
See also