Poland

Official nameRepublic of Poland
Name in local languageRzeczpospolita Polska (pl)
ContinentEurope
SubcontinentEuropean Union
Population (ranking: 37e)38,386,158 inhabitants (2019)
Population growth-0.07 % / year
Area312,679 km²
Density122.77 inhabitants / km²
GDP (ranking: 22e)585.783 billions $USD (2018)
GDP/capita (ranking)15,424 $USD (2018)
GDP growth5.10 % / year (2018)
Life expectancy (ranking)77.90 years (2017)
Birth rate8.90 ‰ (2019)
Fertility rate1.45 children / woman (2017)
Death rate (ranking)9.70 ‰ (2019)
Infant mortality rate (ranking)4.40 ‰ (2019)
Literacy rate99.80 % (2019)
Official languagesPolish
CurrencyPolish złoty (zł PLN)
HDI (ranking: 50e)0.865 / 1 (2017)
EPI (ranking)64.11 (2018)
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
Head of StatePresident Andrzej Duda
National Day3rd May (constitution of 1791)
ISO CodesPL, POL
DemonymPolish
Tourists (ranking)18,257,800 people (2017)
Pologne – petite
Entry into the European Union has been beneficial

Poland is a central European state bordering Germany to the west, Czechia and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, the Russian enclave to Kaliningrad and Lithuania to the north . It is bordered to the north by the Baltic Sea.
The entry into the European Union on 1st January 2004 was particularly beneficial for Poland and the Polish.
Indeed, since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the break-up of the Eastern bloc, the country has followed its neighbors in a kind of descent into the economic underworld. Unemployment had risen a lot, many companies had closed.
However, the 38.4 million Polish consumers are one of the largest and most promising markets in the European Union. It is also a buffer country between the Union and neighboring Russia.

Varsovie, Pologne
Warsaw, Poland. Photo: Filip Bramorski
Pologne - Lac en automne, Poméranie
Poland – Lake in autumn, Pomerania. Photo: Wildlife Archives
See all related maps or articles
Urban areas (2016)
Urban areasPopulation
Warsaw3,386,904 inhabitants
Katowice2,733,616 inhabitants
Kraków1,489,401 inhabitants
Łódź1,428,579 inhabitants
Gdańsk (Tricity - Trójmiasto)1,325,605 inhabitants
Wrocław1,226,667 inhabitants
Poznań1,185,567 inhabitants
Szczecin917,198 inhabitants
Bydgoszcz-Toruń775,927 inhabitants
Kielce766,911 inhabitants
Lublin711,976 inhabitants
Bielsko-Biała666,146 inhabitants
Rzeszów635,960 inhabitants
Rybnik635,512 inhabitants
Opole617,990 inhabitants
Radom614,155 inhabitants
Częstochowa517,353 inhabitants
Białystok512,004 inhabitants
Tarnów463,170 inhabitants
See all urban areas
Administrative divisions
Provinces (Voivodeships)PopulationArea
Greater Poland (Wielkopolskie)3,484,975 inhabitants29,826 km²
Holy Cross (Świętokrzyskie)1,249,710 inhabitants11,711 km²
Kuyavian-Pomeranian (Kujawsko-Pomorskie)2,082,935 inhabitants17,972 km²
Lesser Poland (Małopolskie)3,386,162 inhabitants15,183 km²
Lower Silesian (Dolnośląskie)2,902,365 inhabitants19,948 km²
Lublin (Lubelskie)2,129,260 inhabitants25,122 km²
Lubusz (Lubuskie)1,016,652 inhabitants13,988 km²
Masovian (Mazowieckie)5,372,579 inhabitants35,558 km²
Opole (Opolskie)991,161 inhabitants9,412 km²
Podlaskie1,185,174 inhabitants20,187 km²
Pomeranian (Pomorskie)2,319,735 inhabitants18,310 km²
Silesian (Śląskie)4,552,627 inhabitants12,333 km²
Subcarpathian (Podkarpackie)2,127,687 inhabitants17,846 km²
Warmian-Masurian (Warmińsko-Mazurskie)1,434,783 inhabitants24,173 km²
West Pomeranian (Zachodniopomorskie)1,706,579 inhabitants22,892 km²
Łódź (Łódzkie)2,479,962 inhabitants18,219 km²
See all administrative divisions
See also