Official nameRepublic of Turkmenistan
Name in local languageTürkmenistan Respublikasy (tk) ; Республика Туркменистан (ru)
SubcontinentCentral Asia
Population (ranking: 103e)8,481,200 inhabitants (2018)
Population growth1.71 % / year
Area491,210 km²
Density17.27 inhabitants / km²
GDP (ranking: 97e)40.761 billions $USD (2018)
GDP/capita (ranking)6,967 $USD (2018)
GDP growth6.20 % / year (2018)
Life expectancy (ranking)68.10 years (2018)
Birth rate19.61 ‰ (2010)
Fertility rate2.19 children / woman (2010)
Death rate (ranking)6.27 ‰ (2010)
Infant mortality rate (ranking)43.84 ‰ (2010)
Literacy rate99.50 % (2007)
Official languagesTurkmen, Russian
CurrencyTurkmen new manat (TMT)
HDI (ranking: 144e)0.710 / 1 (2018)
EPI (ranking)66.10 (2018)
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic (de jure) under a one-party authoritarian dictatorship (de facto)
Head of StatePresident Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
National Day27 October (independence of 1991)
Turkménistan – petite

Turkmenistan is a country located in Central Asia, surrounded by Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south, the Caspian Sea and Azerbaijan to the west, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to the north. It was formerly part of the USSR.

Ashgabat, capitale of Turkmenistan
Ashgabat, capitale of Turkmenistan
Ashgabat, capitale of Turkmenistan
Ashgabat, capitale of Turkmenistan. Photo: Bjørn Christian Tørrissen
Landscape of Turkmenistan
Landscape of Turkmenistan
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Urban areas (2018)
Urban areasPopulation
Achgabat947,267 inhabitants
Turkmenabat279,850 inhabitants
Dachogouz245,920 inhabitants
Mary126,185 inhabitants
See all urban areas
See also