Official nameRepublic of Kazakhstan
Name in local languageҚазақстан Республикасы - Qazaqstan Respublïkası (kk) ; Республика Казахстан (ru)
SubcontinentCentral Asia
Population (ranking: 65e)18,897,892 inhabitants (2021)
Population growth1.30 % / year
Area2,724,222 km²
Density6.94 inhabitants / km²
GDP (ranking: 55e)181.666 billions $USD (2019)
GDP/capita (ranking)9,812 $USD (2019)
GDP growth4.50 % / year (2019)
Life expectancy (ranking)73.18 years (2019)
Birth rate21.17 ‰ (2021)
Fertility rate2.31 children / woman (2015)
Death rate (ranking)7.73 ‰ (2021)
Infant mortality rate (ranking)7.06 ‰ (2021)
Literacy rate99.79 % (2015)
Official languagesKazakh (official state language), Russian
CurrencyTenge (₸ KZT)
HDI (ranking: 71e)0.825 / 1 (2019)
EPI (ranking)54.56 (2018)
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
Head of StatePresident Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
National Day16 December (independence of 1991)
Tourists (ranking)8,789,000 people (2018)

Kazakhstan is a landlocked country (without access to the sea, except the Caspian Sea, which is a closed sea). It is part of the former Soviet republics of the USSR, from which it has been independent since 1991. It shares borders with Russia to the north and west, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan to the south. It is bathed by the Caspian Sea to the west, and has the northern half of what remains of the largely dry Aral Sea.

Historically based in Almaty, the big city in the south of the country, power moved to Astana in the north in 1997 under the leadership of the head of state. The city, which has become capital, has since grown considerably and has gradually become a large urban center, which continues to grow and reached a million inhabitants at the end of 2017. In 2019, it is renamed Nur-Sultan, in the honor of former dictator Nursultan Nazarbayev.

Almaty, former capital of Kazakhstan
Almaty, former capital of Kazakhstan. Photo: Deonisy Mit’
Astana, capital of Kazakhstan
Nur-Sultan, capital of Kazakhstan
Khan Shatyr, Astana, Kazakhstan
Khan Shatyr, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
Lake Almaty, Kazakhstan
Lake Almaty, Kazakhstan
See all related maps or articles
Urban areas (2020)
Urban areasPopulation
Almaty1,916,822 inhabitants
Nur-Sultan (Astana)1,136,156 inhabitants
Shymkent1,038,152 inhabitants
Karaganda504,308 inhabitants
Aktobe445,116 inhabitants
Taraz438,724 inhabitants
Oskemen411,069 inhabitants
Pavlodar391,588 inhabitants
Semey318,790 inhabitants
Kostanay243,898 inhabitants
Oral230,785 inhabitants
Petropavl214,796 inhabitants
Kyzylorda206,704 inhabitants
Aktau204,453 inhabitants
See all urban areas
Administrative divisions
Region (Oblys)PopulationArea
Akmola736,735 inhabitants146,219 km²
Aktobe881,651 inhabitants300,629 km²
Almaty (City)1,916,822 inhabitants682 km²
Almaty2,055,724 inhabitants223,911 km²
Atyrau645,280 inhabitants118,631 km²
Baikonur (City)46,515 inhabitants57 km²
East Kazakhstan (Şyğys Qazaqstan)1,369,597 inhabitants283,226 km²
Jambyl1,130,099 inhabitants144,264 km²
Karaganda1,376,882 inhabitants427,982 km²
Kostanay868,549 inhabitants196,001 km²
Kyzylorda803,531 inhabitants226,019 km²
Mangystau698,796 inhabitants165,642 km²
North Kazakhstan (Soltüstık Qazaqstan)548,755 inhabitants97,993 km²
Nur-Sultan (Astana) (City)1,136,156 inhabitants810 km²
Pavlodar752,169 inhabitants124,800 km²
Shymkent (City)1,038,152 inhabitants1,163 km²
Turkistan (South Kazakhstan)2,016,037 inhabitants117,249 km²
West Kazakhstan (Batys Qazaqstan)656,844 inhabitants151,339 km²
See all administrative divisions
See also