Official nameRepublic of Somaliland
Name in local languageJamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland (so) ; جمهورية أرض الصومال (ar)
SubcontinentEast Africa
Population (ranking: 127e)4,979,218 inhabitants (2018)
Population growth3.14 % / year
Area176,119 km²
Density28.27 inhabitants / km²
GDP (ranking: 194e)2.573 billions $USD (2017)
GDP/capita (ranking)675 $USD (2017)
GDP growth-10.00 % / year (2017)
Life expectancy (ranking)50.40 years (2014)
Birth rate0.00 ‰ (2018)
Fertility rate5.40 children / woman (2011)
Death rate (ranking)1.32 ‰ (2010)
Infant mortality rate (ranking)76.00 ‰ (2014)
Literacy rate48.00 % (2014)
Official languagesSomali (Arabic and English are often used)
CurrencySomaliland shilling (SLSH)
HDI (ranking: n.c.)0.000 / 1 (2017)
EPI (ranking)0.00 (2018)
GovernmentPresidential constitutional republic
Head of StatePresident Muse Bihi Abdi
National Day18 May (independence from Somalia in 1991)
ISO Codes,
Somaliland – petite
An unrecognized but functioning country

Somaliland is an ancient territory of Somalia located in the Horn of Africa. Its self-declared independence in 1991 from Somalia and its Constitution of 30 April 2000 (partly based on Sharia law) are not recognized by the international community. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west and south, Djibouti to the northwest, Puntland to the east, and faces Yemen on the other side of the Gulf of Aden. Its capital and main city is Hargeisa.

Hargeisa, capital of Somaliland
Hargeisa, capital of Somaliland. Photo: Retlaw Snellac
Port of Berbera, Somaliland
Port of Berbera, Somaliland. Photo: Lakmi
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Urban areas (2018)
Urban areasPopulation
Hargeisa1,061,029 inhabitants
Burao350,211 inhabitants
Berbera267,918 inhabitants
Borama215,616 inhabitants
Erigavo114,846 inhabitants
See all urban areas
Administrative divisions
Awdal673,263 inhabitants21,374 km²
Sahil360,000 inhabitants0 km²
Sanaag677,000 inhabitants53,374 km²
Sool718,000 inhabitants25,036 km²
Togdheer941,000 inhabitants38,663 km²
Woqooyi Galbeed2,400,000 inhabitants28,836 km²
See all administrative divisions
See also