Official nameRepublic of Nicaragua
Name in local languageRepública de Nicaragua (es)
SubcontinentCentral America
Population (ranking: 114e)6,460,229 inhabitants (2018)
Population growth1.04 % / year
Area130,376 km²
Density49.55 inhabitants / km²
GDP (ranking: 142e)13.118 billions $USD (2018)
GDP/capita (ranking)2,029 $USD (2018)
GDP growth-3.80 % / year (2018)
Life expectancy (ranking)74.30 years (2018)
Birth rate23.17 ‰ (2015)
Fertility rate2.54 children / woman (2015)
Death rate (ranking)4.64 ‰ (2015)
Infant mortality rate (ranking)18.10 ‰ (2015)
Literacy rate82.82 % (2015)
Official languagesSpanish
CurrencyCórdoba (NIO)
HDI (ranking: 166e)0.651 / 1 (2018)
EPI (ranking)55.04 (2018)
GovernmentUnitary Dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
Head of StatePresident Daniel Ortega
National Day15 September (independence of 1821)
Tourists (ranking)1,787,000 people (2017)
Nicaragua – petite
A very poor country torn between North and South

Nicaragua is a Central American country bordered by Costa Rica to the south and Honduras to the north. It is bathed by the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east.
Nicaragua is one of the poorest countries in the Americas. With one in five people living below the poverty line, there are many social and health problems facing the country’s leaders. And that, not to mention the corruption that has become widespread since the overthrow in the 1980s Sandinistas by the Contras, aided and funded by the CIA, which itself financed its activities by drug trafficking. This illegal war has left tens of thousands of victims, mostly civilians.
Today, the Sandinistas are back in power, through elections, and the country is headed by President Daniel Ortega. He has made many concessions to the opposition, including making abortion illegal, even therapeutic or resulting from rape! A real turning back for women’s rights, conceded to the Catholic Church in exchange for its political support. The president has since been trying to stay in power at all costs, creating an authoritarian regime and favoring nepotism.

Volcan Concepción, Nicaragua
Volcan Concepción, Nicaragua. Source: Wildlife Archives
Côte du Nicaragua
Coast of Nicaragua
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Urban areas (2015)
Urban areasPopulation
Managua2,245,408 inhabitants
Masaya227,309 inhabitants
Chinandega222,622 inhabitants
León204,985 inhabitants
Matagalpa156,218 inhabitants
Jinotega131,106 inhabitants
Granada126,846 inhabitants
Estelí125,455 inhabitants
Puerto Cabezas (Bilwi)110,335 inhabitants
Siuna102,807 inhabitants
Bluefields55,921 inhabitants
See all urban areas
Administrative divisions
Boaco178,582 inhabitants4,177 km²
Carazo190,769 inhabitants1,081 km²
Chinandega429,557 inhabitants4,822 km²
Chontales185,866 inhabitants6,481 km²
Côte Caraïbe du Nord (Costa Caribe Norte) (Région autonome)480,874 inhabitants33,106 km²
Côte Caraïbe du Sud (Costa Caribe Sur) (Région autonome)385,102 inhabitants27,260 km²
Estelí224,231 inhabitants2,230 km²
Granada206,009 inhabitants1,040 km²
Jinotega438,413 inhabitants9,222 km²
León410,860 inhabitants5,138 km²
Madriz164,146 inhabitants1,708 km²
Managua1,484,462 inhabitants3,465 km²
Masaya364,168 inhabitants611 km²
Matagalpa561,282 inhabitants6,804 km²
Nueva Segovia253,489 inhabitants3,491 km²
Río San Juan127,225 inhabitants7,541 km²
Rivas177,668 inhabitants2,162 km²
See all administrative divisions
See also